Faculty of Engineering

Postgraduate - Unit

This unit entry is for students who completed this unit in 2013 only. For students planning to study the unit, please refer to the unit indexes in the the current edition of the Handbook. If you have any queries contact the managing faculty for your course or area of study.

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6 points, SCA Band 2, 0.125 EFTSL

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FacultyFaculty of Engineering
Organisational UnitDepartment of Chemical Engineering
OfferedClayton Term 3 2013 (Day)
Coordinator(s)Dr Warren Batchelor


This unit will equip students with the ability to evaluate new developments in papermaking, to analyse the performance of current operations, to determine the cause of process malfunctions in papermaking operations and to conduct efficient trials with a view to improving current operations. It will investigate the engineering and science of unit operations involved in the production of paper from fibres; refining of chemical pulps; the paper machine approach systems; headbox design and performance; dewatering and network formation in the forming section; wet-end additives and wet-end systems; water removal and web modification in the press and dryer sections; property enhancement by calendering and by the addition of material at the size press and coater; and winding and finishing operations. It will examine the equipment used for each operation, the functioning of this equipment and the impact of each operation on the properties of the paper or board being produced.


Learning objectives of this unit are that the student will:

  1. Acquire an increased knowledge and understanding of:
    • Fibre separation and dispersion
    • Refining of chemical pulps
    • The importance of accurate consistency control
    • Paper machine approach systems
    • Creation of a uniform jet with the required properties
    • Gravity and vacuum separation of fibres and water
    • Fourdrinier and twin wire formers
    • Controlling and the effects of fibre orientation
    • Retention and wet-end systems
    • Additives and basic elements of wet-end chemistry
    • Pressing and drying
    • Press and dryer sections
    • Calendaring, winding and finishing
    • Size press treatment and coating

  1. Develop the skills required to:
    • Analyse new developments in pulp fibre treatment and forming of the paper web, and make appropriate and innovative recommendations
    • Keep up to date with developments in papermaking and assess their relevance to specific commercial operations
    • Conduct effective papermaking trials
    • Analyse paper machine performance and, when there are technical deficiencies, identify action that should be taken

  1. Demonstrate the ability to:
    • Undertake in depth research of the literature on a specific topic related to papermaking, analyse the information obtained and produce a report which demonstrates understanding and insight
    • Organise practical experiments, make detailed observations of experiments, analyse the results and produce an accurate and detailed report


Assignments and reports: 40%
Test: 10%
Final Examination: 50%

Chief examiner(s)

Contact hours

28 hours lectures and 8 hours laboratory classes in a one week intensive, 115 hours private study