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Connections between paragraphs

You have been looking at some ways in which ideas are connected in a paragraph. When you are writing a report or an essay, it is important to ensure that similar connections are made between all the paragraphs. If you do not make these links, your lecturer or tutor may feel that your writing is disorganised.

Look at the following paragraphs from the introduction to a report on concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish, and try the following exercises.

Polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCBs) comprise a group of 209 individual compounds which were produced commercially in large quantities up to the late 1970s (Muller, 1997). They were used in products as diverse as electrical equipment, lubricants, paints, plasticisers, carbonless copy paper and slide mounting for microscope slides. PCBs are among a broader group of organochloride chemicals, similar to the notorious DDT, which persist in the environment due to their ability to resist chemical and physical breakdown. They also accumulate up the food chain, with those organisms higher up the food chain typically demonstrating higher levels where contamination has occurred.

PCBs are fat soluble and accumulate in fat where they persist for many years after exposure has ceased. Negative health effects of exposure to these chemicals have been observed in both humans and other animals,and include carcinogenic, immunotoxic, reproductive and developmental effects.

Prior to the banning of the chemicals by the American Federal Government in the late 1970s, PCBs were discharged into waterways around the USA. As more health risks have been associated with PCBs, scientists have become increasingly concerned with the concentrations seen in fish, which have the potential to accumulate up the food chain to humans.

Modelling the concentrations and ages of sample fish will allow scientists to predict the effects PCBs will have in the future. The most accurate model for the degradation of PCBs is required to ensure the accuracy of any predictions, and is of the utmost importance when dealing with such potentially dangerous chemicals.

Look at the first two words of this passage: polychlorinated biphenyls. You will notice that polychlorinated biphenyls are referred to in different ways throughout the passage. Try these two questions.

  1. The only pronouns in paragraph 1 which refer to polychlorinated biphenyls are they, and their.
  2. 0,1
    Incorrect.

    Try again.
    Correct! Which is also a pronoun which refers to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) comprise a group of 209 individual compounds which were produced commercially in large quantities up to the late 1970s (Muller, 1997). They were used in products as diverse as electrical equipment, lubricants, paints, plasticisers, carbonless copy paper and slide mounting for microscope slides. PCBs are among a broader group of organochloride chemicals, similar to the notorious DDT, which persist in the environment due to their ability to resist chemical and physical breakdown. They also accumulate up the food chain, with those organisms higher up the food chain typically demonstrating higher levels where contamination has occurred.
    True;False


  3. Where would you find these the synonyms for polychlorinated biphenyls through the passage?


    1. PCBs, compounds, PCBs, organochloride chemicals, DDT -




    2. the chemicals, PCBs, PCBs -




    3. PCBs, PCBs, such potentially dangerous chemicals -




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