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Paragraph exercises

Click the highlighted words below to see how key terms are referred to in this paragraph on telescopes.

  • Telescopes
  • planets
  • stars
  • connectors

Telescopes

Many ground- and space-based telescopes are currently being proposed to detect terrestrial planets around stars other than the sun. However, the earliest of these is not expected to be operational within the next decade, and as the development of such telescopes is subject to changing political and budgetary constraints, there is no certainty that such advances will be achieved. It is therefore important to investigate methods for the detection of terrestrial planets of known extra-solar planet systems using existing telescope technology.

Telescopes

Many ground- and space-based telescopes are currently being proposed to detect terrestrial planets around stars other than the sun. However, the earliest of these is not expected to be operational within the next decade, and as the development of such telescopes is subject to changing political and budgetary constraints, there is no certainty that such advances will be achieved. It is therefore important to investigate methods for the detection of terrestrial planets of known extra-solar planet systems using existing telescope technology.

Telescopes

Many ground- and space-based telescopes are currently being proposed to detect terrestrial planets around stars other than the sun. However, the earliest of these is not expected to be operational within the next decade, and as the development of such telescopes is subject to changing political and budgetary constraints, there is no certainty that such advances will be achieved. It is therefore important to investigate methods for the detection of terrestrial planets of known extra-solar planet systems using existing telescope technology.

Telescopes

Many ground- and space-based telescopes are currently being proposed to detect terrestrial planets around stars other than the sun. However, the earliest of these is not expected to be operational within the next decade, and as the development of such telescopes is subject to changing political and budgetary constraints, there is no certainty that such advances will be achieved. It is therefore important to investigate methods for the detection of terrestrial planets of known extra-solar planet systems using existing telescope technology.

Look at these paragraphs on a range of topics and see if you can identify the terms which help hold ideas together.

  1. The extra-solar planet systems
  2. The mammalian auditory system
  3. Hepatitis
  4. Cardiovascular disease
  5. Salinity

Look at the highlighted words in each passage. For each there is one linked term which has not been marked. Type it into the space provided and click the check answer button.

  1. The extra-solar planet systems

    The formation of extra-solar planet systems can be achieved in two ways. In the first, a terrestrial mass planet can form in the inner disk, while a gas giant forms beyond the snow line. During the inward migration of the gas giant the terrestrial planet is captured in a mean motion resonance where it remains until migration ceases. In the second, a gas giant migrates through a disk of planetismals. This results in mean motion resonances with the gas giant sweeping through the disk of planetismals, causing material to be either scattered out of the system or captured into these resonances. Any captured material will coagulate into a terrestrial planet, provided the density is sufficiently high.
  2. In the first
    Correct!

    The extra-solar planet systems

    The formation of extra-solar planet systems can be achieved in two ways. In the first, a terrestrial mass planet can form in the inner disk, while a gas giant forms beyond the snow line. During the inward migration of the gas giant the terrestrial planet is captured in a mean motion resonance where it remains until migration ceases. In the second, a gas giant migrates through a disk of planetismals. This results in mean motion resonances with the gas giant sweeping through the disk of planetismals, causing material to be either scattered out of the system or captured into these resonances. Any captured material will coagulate into a terrestrial planet, provided the density is sufficiently high.

  3. The mammalian auditory system

    The mammalian auditory system can be divided into three major parts: the outer ear, the middle ear and the inner ear. The outer ear has two parts: the external ear and the ear canal which is separated from the middle ear by the ear drum. The middle ear contains the smallest human muscle and bones in a tiny air cavity to create a mechanical connection to the inner ear. The inner ear is no bigger than the size of a chickpea and is one of the hardest bones in the human body.

    Type in the linked term from the passage above which hasn't been marked in bold.
  4. The mammalian auditory system
    Correct!

    The mammalian auditory system can be divided into three major parts: the outer ear, the middle ear and the inner ear. The outer ear has two parts: the external ear and the ear canal which is separated from the middle ear by the ear drum. The middle ear contains the smallest human muscle and bones in a tiny air cavity to create a mechanical connection to the inner ear. The inner ear is no bigger than the size of a chickpea and is one of the hardest bones in the human body.

  5. Hepatitis

    Although Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B are well-known to science, it was only in 1989 when a third major type of hepatitis was identified. The Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health problem around the world, and it is the most common cause of chronic liver disease (Marr, 1998). There are approximately 175 million HCV carriers around the world and it accounts for 20% of all cases of acute hepatitis, 70% of all cases of chronic hepatitis, 40% of all cases of end-stage cirrhosis, 60% of all cases of hepato-cellular carcinoma and 30% of all liver transplants (Sherlock and Dooley, 2002).

    There are several synonyms for hepatitis in the paragraph above, like Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C.

    Type one pronoun used for the same term in the box below, and click the check answer button.
  6. it
    Correct!

    It is the pronoun used to stand for Hepatitis C in this passage.

    Although Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B are well-known to science, it was only in 1989 when a third major type of hepatitis was identified. The Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health problem around the world, and it is the most common cause of chronic liver disease (Marr, 1998). There are approximately 175 million HCV carriers around the world and it accounts for 20% of all cases of acute hepatitis, 70% of all cases of chronic hepatitis, 40% of all cases of end-stage cirrhosis, 60% of all cases of hepato-cellular carcinoma and 30% of all liver transplants (Sherlock and Dooley, 2002).

  7. Hepatitis

    Look at the same paragraph again. What associated term has not been marked in bold in the paragraph above?

  8. acute hepatitis
    Correct!

    Acute hepatitis is another associated term. In the paragraph below, the the associated terms are marked in bold. Hepatitis

    Although Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B are well-known to science, it was only in 1989 when a third major type of hepatitis was identified. The Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health problem around the world, and it is the most common cause of chronic liver disease (Marr, 1998). There are approximately 175 million HCV carriers around the world and it accounts for 20% of all cases of acute hepatitis, 70% of all cases of chronic hepatitis, 40% of all cases of end-stage cirrhosis, 60% of all cases of hepato-cellular carcinoma and 30% of all liver transplants (Sherlock and Dooley, 2002).

  9. Cardiovascular disease

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death in industrialised nations, and pathological and age-related structural changes to the large arteries in the vascular system are thought to be major factors in cardiac deaths. Changes in the structure of the large arteries such as the aorta due to normal processes of ageing or as a result of pathological conditions such as artherosclerosis lead to decreased flexibility of the artery. This stiffness leads to increased blood pressure in high risk populations, and some researchers have provided evidence that large artery stiffness is a possible contributor to the development of CVD (McGrath, Liang et al. 1998; Weber, Auer et al 2004).

    a. What is the third term that could have been higlighted in the paragraph above?

  10. This stiffness
    Correct!

    This stiffness refers to decreased flexibility of the artery or large artery stiffness.

    Cardiovascular disease

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death in industrialised nations, and pathological and age-related structural changes to the large arteries in the vascular system are thought to be major factors in cardiac deaths. Changes in the structure of the large arteries such as the aorta due to normal processes of ageing or as a result of pathological conditions such as artherosclerosis lead to decreased flexibility of the artery. This stiffness leads to increased blood pressure in high risk populations, and some researchers have provided evidence that large artery stiffness is a possible contributor to the development of CVD (McGrath, Liang et al. 1998; Weber, Auer et al 2004).

  11. Salinity

    Australian wetlands are the ecosystems most likely to be at threat from salinity in dryland and irrigated regions. These wetlands form the lowest topographic points in the landscape, increasing the likelihood of receiving saline groundwater discharge and – like streams and rivers – they also act as receptacles for surface water flows which bring with them pollutants such as salinity and nutrients from the surrounding catchment.

    Look at the words marked in bold in the paragraph above. Can you find another associated word?

  12. salinity
    Correct!

    Salinity is associated with saline groundwater and pollutants. Salinity

    Australian wetlands are the ecosystems most likely to be at threat from salinity in dryland and irrigated regions. These wetlands form the lowest topographic points in the landscape, increasing the likelihood of receiving saline groundwater discharge and – like streams and rivers – they also act as receptacles for surface water flows which bring with them pollutants such as salinity and nutrients from the surrounding catchment.

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