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Indirect quotes

Click on the highlighted text to see the comments.

Look at the sample citations below. Both citations paraphrase the original text. Do you notice any difference in the way these two citations are set out? Can you think of any reason for this difference?

Citation A

Resolution is a measure of how many pixels a scanner can sample in a given image and is thus a description of the amount of detail in a picture (Figeiredo, McIllree and Thomas, 1996).

Citation B

Grochowski and Fontana (1998), and Shiroishi (1998) attribute lower costs to the introduction of improved technologies including advanced thin film media, magnetoresistive heads and high performance PRML signal processing.

Comments

Comments

The citations differ in relation to the position of the authors in the sentence.

Citation A is an information prominent citation - the information is placed first, followed by the author and date in brackets: Information + (Author Date).

This technique is commonly used in technical writing when you wish to convey the information content rather than a particular author's opinion or ideas - that is, for information which is factual and not controversial in nature.

Citation B is an author-prominent citation - the author is placed in the initial position: Author (date) + Verb + Information. This positioning in the sentence draws more attention to the author than the information, as it emphasises who has written the ideas you are discussing in your assignment. Author-prominent citations are used when you are dealing with the ideas of individual writers as opposed to factual information.

These differences in sentence structure can be clearly seen in the diagrams below.

Citation A

Resolution is a measure of how many pixels a scanner can sample in a given image and is thus a description of the amount of detail in a picture (Figeiredo, McIllree and Thomas, 1996).

Topic

Resolution
+
Verb

is
+
Definition

a measure of how...
+
(Author, date)

(Figeiredo, McIllree and Thomas 1996)

Citation B

Shiroishi (1998) and Grochowski and Fontana (1998) attribute lower costs to the introduction of improved technologies including advanced thin film media, magnetoresistive heads and high performance PRML signal processing.

Author (date)

Grochowski and Fontana (1998), and Shiroishi (1998)
+
Verb

attribute
+
Information

lower costs to
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