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Abstracts and introductions

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Abstracts

Look at the sample abstract below and try to identify the sections of the abstract which describe the purpose, the topic, the main sections, and the conclusions.

Abstract

This report investigates the current state of scanner technology and examines the predicted future advancements of scanners. A brief history of the scanner and its operation is initially outlined. The discussion then focuses on the advantages and limitations of the five main types of scanners in common use today: drum scanners, flatbed scanners, sheet-fed scanners, slide scanners, and hand held scanners. The performance of these scanners is examined in relation to four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. It is concluded that further technological advances in these four areas as well as the deployment of new sensor technology will continue to improve the quality of scanned images. It is also suggested that specialised scanners will increasingly be incorporated into other types of technology such as digital cameras.

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Introductions

Look at the sample introduction below and try to identify the sections of the introduction which describe the purpose, background, scope, methodology, assumptions, and plan of the report. (Some of these sections may not be included in the introduction.)

1. Introduction

The purpose of this report is to survey the current state of scanner technology and to briefly discuss predicted advancements in the field. The first scanner, initially referred to as a 'reading machine', was developed in 1960 by Jacob Rabinow, a Russian born engineer. The device could scan printed material and then compare each character to a set of standards in a matrix using, for the first time, the "best match principle" to determine the original message (Blatner, Fleishman and Roth 1998, p.3). This reading machine was to form the basis for the development of current scanning, sorting and processing machines.

An early improvement on the reading machine was the drum scanner. These scanners used a type of scanning technology called photomultiplier tubes (PMT). Drum scanners are still used in industry today because of the high quality images they produce. The development of smaller, more economical scanners such as desktop scanners and scanners for domestic use followed the drum scanner as the number of computer users increased and computer technology advanced.

Scanners can now capture images from a wide variety of two and three dimensional sources. These images are converted to digitised computer files that can be stored on a hard-drive or floppy disk. With the aid of specific software, these images can then be manipulated and enhanced by the user. It is now possible to deploy electronic acquisition to create an entire layout (including all graphic elements) from the same computer. This means manual stripping is no longer required (Scanners, digital cameras and photo CDs 2000). Scanners are considered an invaluable tool for adding graphics and text to documents and have been readily adopted by both business and domestic users.

By examining a range of recently published journal articles, magazine articles and internet sites on the topic of scanners this report describes the main types of scanners in common use today and examines their performance in relation to four criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. The report then considers the effect of further technological advances in these four areas, as well as the deployment of new sensor technology on the future development of scanners.

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Abstract

Bold = purpose + topic

Normal = main sections

Italics = conclusion

This report investigates the current state of scanner technology and examines the predicted future advancements of scanners. A brief history of the scanner and its operation is initially outlined. The discussion then focuses on the advantages and limitations of the five main types of scanners in common use today: drum scanners, flatbed scanners, sheet-fed scanners, slide scanners, and hand held scanners. The performance of these scanners is examined in relation to four main criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. It is concluded that further technological advances in these four areas as well as the deployment of new sensor technology will continue to improve the quality of scanned images. It is also suggested that specialised scanners will increasingly be incorporated into other types of technology such as digital cameras

1 Introduction

Bold = purpose

Normal = background

Italics = methodology

Bold Italics = scope + plan

The purpose of this report is to survey the current state of scanner technology and to briefly discuss predicted advancements in the field. The first scanner, initially referred to as a 'reading machine', was developed in 1960 by Jacob Rabinow, a Russian born engineer. The device could scan printed material and then compare each character to a set of standards in a matrix using, for the first time, the "best match principle" to determine the original message (Blatner, Fleishman and Roth 1998, p.3). This reading machine was to form the basis for the development of current scanning, sorting and processing machines.

An early improvement on the reading machine was the drum scanner. These scanners used a type of scanning technology called photomultiplier tubes (PMT). Drum scanners are still used in industry today because of the high quality images they produce. The development of smaller, more economical scanners such as desktop scanners and scanners for domestic use followed the drum scanner as the number of computer users increased and computer technology advanced.

Scanners can now capture images from a wide variety of two and three dimensional sources. These images are converted to digitised computer files that can be stored on a hard-drive or floppy disk. With the aid of specific software, these images can then be manipulated and enhanced by the user. It is now possible to deploy electronic acquisition to create an entire layout (including all graphic elements) from the same computer. This means manual stripping is no longer required (Scanners, digital cameras and photo CDs 2000). Scanners are considered an invaluable tool for adding graphics and text to documents and have been readily adopted by both business and domestic users.

By examining a range of recently published journal articles, magazine articles and internet sites on the topic of scanners this report describes the main types of scanners in common use today and examines their performance in relation to four criteria: resolution, bit-depth, dynamic range and software. The report then considers the effect of further technological advances in these four areas, as well as the deployment of new sensor technology on the future development of scanners

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