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Integrating quotations

You will need to introduce the work of others to your reader, and you can do this in different ways. If you are not given specific standards to follow, follow those of a core journal in the field.

Example 1

Part paraphrase, part quotation

Kaplan and Ostler (1982), in a review of the literature, conclude that different languages have different preferences for certain kinds of discourse patterns. For instance, they argue that English expository prose has an essentially linear rhetorical pattern which consists of "a clearly defined topic, introduction, body which explicates all but nothing more that the stated topic, paragraphs which chain from one to the next, and a conclusion which tells the reader what has been discussed" (p. 14).

Example 2

Quotation

Kaplan more recently summarized the concept as follows:

.........................................................................................

.........................................................................................

(Kaplan, 1987:10)

With "as follows:...", no grammatical constraints apply to the ensuing quotation; whereas a lead-in to a quotation such as "X (1987) can be criticized for comparing [...]" must be followed by a noun/noun phrase.

Example 3

As part of your own text
  1. (a) Where the date and the author are given prominence:

    "In 1987, Kaplan outlined his theory of cultural differences..."
  2. b) Where the information is given prominence:

    "This result has since been replicated (Smith 1988; Jones 1990)."

    Note that more than one author is being cited.

If a work is cited more than once on the same page and the author is assumed to be known, the date of the text need not be repeated: just put the page number: e.g. "(p.77)", or "(Smith p.77)" if there are any intervening authors.

In some cases you will need to modify the quote using square brackets [ ] to to make it follow grammatically by including a verb ending or by changing a pronoun, etc. Omitted information is indicated by [...].

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