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What to reference

You should provide references to both ideas and information:

  • data
  • statistics
  • tables
  • direct quotes
  • the opinions and ideas of other researchers.

There are two instances where you do not need to reference.

  1. You do not have to reference what is known as 'common knowledge'. This is somewhat difficult to define, as what may be common knowledge in one field will not be in another. Essentially, however, common knowledge is what most people in a particular field would be expected to know, and which has the status of established fact.
  2. You also don't need to reference an idea or words (phrases or sentences) which are totally your own. But if you haven't referenced a particular point, the implication is that you are claiming the idea as your own.
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