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Writing the conclusion

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When you finish writing, leave yourself time to stand back from your report so you can get some perspective on it. Read the whole thing through again, making notes before you start the conclusion.

There are some important things you need to do in the conclusion:

  • You need to link it to the rest of your report.
  • You need to highlight the significant elements from your report (from both parts).
  • You need to draw out the main points you want to make about the topic - and make them at a general level.
  • You need to avoid introducing new material.

Read the following sample conclusion. Note how it is organised and see where you think the strengths and weaknesses lie.

Conclusion 1

It can be seen then that differences do exist between Coca-Cola and Pepsi Cola. This can be seen in the marketing variables which are the basis for segmentation such as age and geographic variables. In a competitive market, both companies must identify and target different market segments in order to remain at the cutting edge. Differences between the companies are evident with respect to product, pricing, place and promotion. Coca-cola relies heavily on value: quality is more than something we see or taste. (http://www.coca-cola.com). Pepsi, on the other hand, relies on its success resulting from superior products and high standards of performance (http://www.pepsico.com).

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Now do the same with this conclusion.

Conclusion 2

Organisations in our era are extremely sensitive - as they must be - to demographic, political, technological and economic developments. Environmental changes most affect strategic perspective. With respect to the marketing mix, quality in the biscuit industry is a key factor. For example, Arnott's uses its Sunshine brand to compete at the budget end of the market, but promotes its own brand on the basis of quality at the upper end. Competition with non-biscuit products such a snack food and confectionery is partly on the basis of packaging. Even though the two companies have different specialities, the price, distribution and promotion are very similar. It can be seen that Arnott's have a stronger market share than Nabisco due to stronger promotion, more variety of products and brand loyalty.

An effective marketing program brings together all of the elements of the marketing mix to achieve the organisation's marketing objectives by delivering to customers what they want and need. Thus, the most successful companies will be those that can meet these needs most effectively

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Conclusion 1

It can be seen then that differences do exist between Coca-Cola and Pepsi Cola. This can be seen in the marketing variables which are the basis for segmentation such as age and geographic variables. In a competitive market, both companies must identify and target different market segments in order to remain at the cutting edge. Differences between the companies are evident with respect to product, pricing, place and promotion. Coca-cola relies heavily on value: quality is more than something we see or taste. (http://www.coca-cola.com). Pepsi, on the other hand, relies on its success resulting from superior products and high standards of performance (http://www.pepsico.com). Good - refers back to the comparison.



Needs more explicit focus on most significant macro forces from Part 1



Sums up main points.



Highlights significant features from Part 2.



This section is sounding too much like a promo from the sites.

Conclusion 2

Organisations in our era are extremely sensitive - as they must be - to demographic, political, technological and economic developments. Environmental changes most affect strategic perspective. With respect to the marketing mix, quality in the biscuit industry is a key factor. For example, Arnott's uses its Sunshine brand to compete at the budget end of the market, but promotes its own brand on the basis of quality at the upper end. Competition with non-biscuit products such a snack food and confectionery is partly on the basis of packaging. Even though the two companies have different specialities, the price, distribution and promotion are very similar. It can be seen that Arnott's have a stronger market share than Nabisco due to stronger promotion, more variety of products and brand loyalty. Good attempt to raise the significant elements from Part 1.







This is a little too specific for a conclusion: the student needs to focus on drawing out main points at a general level.



Some of this could have been positioned earlier in the report rather than in the conclusion.



Good here - gets back on the track of the significant similarities and differences.
An effective marketing program brings together all of the elements of the marketing mix to achieve the organisation's marketing objectives by delivering to customers what they want and need. Thus, the most successful companies will be those that can meet these needs most effectively Good general level of discussion here, though could be referring to the industry.
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