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Common abbreviations

Mathematical symbols

Therefore therefore
Because because
Is the same as is the same as
Is not the same as is not the same as
Is greater than is greater than
Is less than is less than
And and


An increase an increase
A decrease a decrease
Causes/leads to/results in causes/leads to/results in
Is caused by/is the result of is caused by/is the result of
Is related to is related to

Other abbreviations and symbols

e.g. for example
re: concerning
ca. about
AM morning
PM afternoon
etc. and so on
N.B. note well
b/f before
cf. compared
viz. namely
q.v. refer to, see (often used as a cross reference)
i.e. that is
p.a. per annum, each year
et al. and others
Right right
Left left
With with
Which which
18th Century 18th Century
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