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Notes on the present perfect

A present perfect verb always includes:
has (singular) or have (plural) + a past participle
Past participles usually end in -ed: contributed, resigned, completed
but may be irregular: fallen, grown, made, been, become
  • couples have contributed
  • average household size has fallen

A present perfect continuous verb includes:
has (singular) or have (plural) + been + an -ing verb
  • couples have been contributing
  • average household size has been falling

A present perfect passive verb includes:
has (singular) or have (plural) + been + a past participle
  • the report has been reviewed
  • prices have been increased
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