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Specific reference

Specific reference means referring to a particular item or previously mentioned noun.

  • Both countable and uncountable nouns use the

Countable nouns

Reference Singular

Article Noun
c. Specific Singular the computer
Plural the computers

Uncountable nouns

Reference Article Noun
c. Specific the information

Specific reference applies when the audience knows exactly which item is referred to.

  • The computer in the department office is new.
  • Most students use the computers in the library.
  • The information I found on the Internet was very useful.
Example from a lab report. The experiment investigated causes of corrosion using stainless steel samples.

Cracks were observed in the stainless steel samples, which allowed H+ to make contact with the steel, causing the corrosion rate to rise.

Superlatives are treated as specific references as there can only be one best, worst, greatest, least, most, etc.


Two models were developed in an attempt to obtain the most accurate readings in the highest temperature range. Model 2 produced the best results.

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